TA3 uses transition analysis and machine learning to provide age estimates from skeletal indicators with explicit probabilities and intervals.

Team pic

The TA3 team. From left to right, Stephen Ousley, Peter Tarp, Svenja Weise, George Milner, Jesper Boldsen, and Sara Getz.


Grant Funding

National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Award # 2014-DN-BX-K007: Adult Age Estimated From New Skeletal Traits And Enhanced Computer-Based Transition Analysis. Co-PIs: GR Milner, JL Boldsen, SD Ousley.

National Science Foundation (NSF) Award #1455810: Doctoral Dissertation Research: Improved Skeletal Age-at-Death Estimation and Its Impact on Archaeological Analyses. Co-PIs: SM Getz and GR Milner.

The Velux Foundation - ‘Ophelia – People Through 1000 Years Project’

Research Collections

The research team would like to thank the following individuals and institutions that provided access to skeletal collections.
(1) Locations of NIJ and NSF-funded research that directly contributed to this manual.
(2) Locations of essential pilot studies and other contributing research conducted by the research team over many years.

Lee Jantz and Dawnie Steadman, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Tennessee (1,2)

Erika L’Abbé and Marius Loots – Dept. of Anatomy, The University of Pretoria (1)

Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh – Forensic Osteology Research Center, University of Chiang Mai (1)

Heather Edgar – Maxwell Museum, University of New Mexico (1,2)

Efstratios Valakos and Panagiota Papazafiri – Dept. of Biology – University of Athens (2)

Jelena Bekvalac – Centre for Human Bioarchaeology, Museum of London (1)

St. Bride’s Church (London, UK) (1)

Joshua Barkey – Dept. of Anthropology, University of Toronto (2)

Shirley Schermer – Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist (2)

The Department of Anthropology (ADBOU), Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (2)

Dennis Dirkmaat and Steven Symes – Dept. of Applied Forensic Sciences, Mercyhurst University (2)

David Hunt – National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (2)

Michael D. Wiant and Terrance Martin, Illinois State Museum, Norris Farms Skeletal Collection (2)

Ana Luísa Santos – University of Coimbra (2)

A special thanks to David Anderson (University of Tennessee) who provided housing to George Milner while collecting the 2009-2010 preliminary data used as a pilot study for the NIJ grant.

The research team would also like to thank the staff and students who facilitated day-to-day operations at these collections. Without their help and good humor, this work would not have been possible.


NIJ Final Report (when available)

TA3 Trait Scoring Manual (1.0)

TA3 Data Collection Form (1.0)

TA3 Installation and User Guide (0.16)


    You can download the latest TA3 Windows EXE installation file from Github here

    ... or can download the TA3 Windows EXE installation file directly from here

    You can download the USB TA3 Windows ZIP file (0.8.4) directly from here

USB Instructions:

The USB version comes as a compressed zip file. To start using it, copy the zip file to a USB. Then, extract the zip file using the stored folders.
NOTE: It could well take 20 minutes or more to extract all files. Then go to the created folder (Transition.Analysis.3-win32-x64-0.8.4) and double-click the Transition Analysis 3.exe file. The first time you run it it may take a minute or two to launch. After that, it will start up faster.

Anticipated availability of the Mac version is December 15, 2021.

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Updated UTC: October 09 2021 15:20